Extended Agrarian Question in Concessionary Capitalism: The Jakarta’s Kaum Miskin Kota

Bosman Batubara, Department of Water Governance, IHE-Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft and the Department of Geography, Planning and International Development, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Noer Fauzi Rachman, Department of Psychology, University of Padjadjaran, Indonesia


In Search of Social-Ecological Transformation in Indonesia's Urbanizing Landscapes


This article recalibrates the agrarian question by using the ongoing explosion in urban and urbanization theories to explain Jakarta’s urban poor (the Kaum Miskin Kota, KMK) as an extended agrarian question. It does so by showing how the two capitalist development trajectories identified by Lenin, Russian, and the American paths, the feudal large- and small-scale landholders transformation into capitalists, are not the case for a near-South country like Indonesia, but a “concessionary capitalism” of large-scale land claims and allocations by the state. This specific process produces a specific agrarian question of soil/land and labour through which the KMK germinate. It closes with a political project, that is, to open more alliance-building possibilities between urban and rural social movements.

Download Paper

CCSEAS Conference 2021 |